Houston voices

This is how an IPO affects a community, according to Houston researcher

After an IPO, zip codes close to a company's headquarters see certain home prices and consumer spending rise, while more new businesses and jobs are created. Photo via Pexels

A massive company announces plans to bring its headquarters to town, and the locals can't stop grumbling. The added traffic. The noise. The shifts in neighborhood routine as a giant new facility gets up and running.

Then the company files for an IPO.

Over the next two years, the traffic and dust may well be forgotten as residents watch their local economy transform. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the mere change in a company's listing status, along with the liquidity it brings its shareholders, can significantly influence local economies.

That was certainly the case with Facebook in 2012, when CEO Mark Zuckerberg helped create a thousand new millionaires and a dozen new billionaires. In the six months following Facebook's IPO, the newly rich drove up real estate prices in the San Francisco Bay area by more than 15 percent as their previously illiquid stock wealth became liquid. Two and a half decades earlier, Dell's 1988 IPO created "Dellionaires" who got rich off their shareholdings and promptly moved into McMansions in the Austin area, forever changing the city.

But were these spillover effects isolated incidents — or the norm? In a recent study, Rice Business professor Alexander W. Butler set out quantify the impact of spillover effects on local economies.

Collaborating with Larry Fauver of the University of Tennessee and Ioannis Spyridopoulos of American University, Butler found that Facebook's and Dell's impacts were not one-offs: IPOs typically spark significant positive spillovers in local economies. What's more, the team determined that it is the listing decision, rather than actual capital raising, that boosts local labor markets, business environments, consumer spending and real estate.

But why? An IPO doesn't create a new company. It does, however, generate significant liquidity for the firm, for employees and for other shareholders who go forth into the community to spend their new cash. Investors' wealth also rises if a firm's stock price climbs after listing, as does a firm's wealth as it raises new capital.

To be certain that it's not just a firm's raising of capital that causes these spillovers, Butler and his team also looked at the effects of seasoned equity offering (SEO) activity, which doesn't involve a change in a company's listing status. What they found is that the effect of SEOs on local economies is insignificant. So capital raising alone is not enough.

To reach their conclusions, Butler and his colleagues selected 1,365 zip codes that had at least one IPO between 1998 and 2015. (The years 1999, 2000 and 2003 were excluded due to a lack of income data at the zip code level.) They also identified zip codes that were two miles, five miles and ten miles from a newly public company's headquarters.

Then they compared their selected zip codes to control zip codes in the same county using a matching process to compare "apples to apples." The team compared figures such as changes in home prices, the number of new mortgages, zip code business patterns, credit card spending, and income and wages for the two years following an IPO.

Analyzing these data, they found that when an IPO occurs, each $10 million in proceeds leads to an extra 0.7 new businesses in the surrounding area and 41 new local jobs. And while the price of expensive homes in the newly public company's zip code didn't increase, the prices of expensive homes in other zip codes within two miles of headquarters did rise — by $3,900 for the average expensive home valued at $590,000.

Prices were also higher in zip codes two to five miles away from headquarters, but less so. Growth of home prices, they discovered, gets a boost after the lockup period ends and shareholders can sell their stock, supporting the hypothesis that changes in investor liquidity cause that spillover. Further evidence of this came when they found that home prices climb even more when a firm's stock price jumps after the IPO.

But IPOs are not all good news for communities. Findings also showed IPO activity increases the odds that middle- to lower-income residents may have to move to lower-income zip codes. In the years following Facebook's IPO, workers in the Bay area such as police officers, teachers and firefighters were priced out of the housing market and relegated to long commutes to work.

Facebook has taken notice. The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, a charitable foundation Zuckerberg cofounded with his wife, Priscilla Chan, has donated $3.6 million toward the city's housing crisis.

As future companies go public, leaders could be well served to recognize Butler's team's findings. Yes, when their firm gains better access to financial markets, they're really are helping lift up the local economy — just not everyone who's living in it.

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This article originally ran on Rice Business Wisdom and is based on research from Alexander W. Butler, a professor of finance at Jones Graduate School of Business at Rice University.

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Building Houston

 
 

Capital Factory's Houston HQ will be in The Ion. Photo courtesy of The Ion

A company that supports entrepreneurship and startups across the Lone Star State with mentorship and funding has announced its new homebase in Houston.

Capital Factory has revealed a new programming partnership with The Ion. Through the collaboration, Capital Factory will host programming, events, and resources within the innovation hub to grow, educate, and support Houston-based startups and entrepreneurs.

"Capital Factory's presence at The Ion will further expand the opportunities for startups and innovators in the Houston region, while strengthening an important pillar of the Texas Startup Manifesto," says Joshua Baer, founder and CEO of Capital Factory, in a news release.

Capital Factory was founded in Austin in 2009 and boosts on being the most active investor in Texas, deploying smaller investments to a multitude of early-stage startups. According to Crunchbase's data, the entity has invested in over 160 companies with 20 exits. Capital Factory officially entered the Houston market in 2019 and doubled down its presence last year when it merged with Station Houston.

Now, with its Houston headquarters moving into The Ion, the two innovation partners will take an inclusive approach to creating connections between innovators, mentors, investors, and markets, per the release.

"We are thrilled to have Capital Factory as a programming partner at The Ion" says Jan E. Odegard, executive director of The Ion, in the release. "The Ion seeks to work with key partners and established brands to help build a rich and inclusive set of startup services that can support all innovators and startups wherever they are in their entrepreneurial journey. Capital Factory brings a proven track record for providing entrepreneurs with services and investments that brings great value not only to The Ion ecosystem, but also to the entire Houston innovation ecosystem."

Capital Factory's first event at The Ion will be Open Coffee on November 16th followed by Open Coworking all day, Baer adds in his statement.

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