There are three topics in particular that business owners should refresh and/or make sure they include in their HR policies and employee handbook. Photo via Getty Images

Just as we typically look to freshen up our homes this time of year, the same needs to be done for employee handbooks. Employee handbooks streamline HR operations, mitigate risks and set expectations to protect a business from negative workplace behavior by outlining employee policies and procedures.

There are three topics in particular that business owners should refresh and/or make sure they include in their HR policies and employee handbook: in-office attendance, social media and artificial intelligence (AI).

In-office attendance

When taking a closer look at hybrid workplace policies, the in-office attendance policies should align with your organizational goals. Whether you decide to implement hybrid work permanently or eventually return to being in the office completely, the return-to-office (RTO) policies should reflect those goals.

Clear expectations are especially important when defining office attendance rules. When attendance policies are set, employees respond best when they are fair, accessible and easily understood. Detailed policies outlining the nuances and consequences can help reduce noncompliance while supporting accountability.

Policies need consistent enforcement for them to be effective. Hybrid policies set prior to or during the pandemic may now be loosely enforced. The policies may state for employees to be in the office three days a week, but there may be no accountability for not meeting the mandate. Not enforcing attendance policies can give the impression that it is okay to violate other policies, too. Reviewing your policies allows you to course correct and write a policy reflecting your corporate culture and goals. You’ll then be able to reintroduce the attendance policy and enforce it across the board as intended.

Social media

You are hard pressed to find an employee without a social media account, whether it is TikTok or LinkedIn. If your business does not have a social media policy with guidelines surrounding employees’ online behaviors, now is the time to put one in place. If you do have a policy, social media changes quickly enough to warrant an annual review.

Social media policies should set boundaries between personal and professional use of social media. Employee activity on social media outside of work can influence business, as employees are often seen as reflecting the company. It is also important to note that social media policies should be based on input from senior management, HR, legal and IT, not just marketing.

The social media policy should delineate between an employee’s personal and professional use, establish a code of conduct and outline its use as part of crisis communications. Social media can just as easily elevate your brand, and you can potentially ask employees to share positive work experiences online.

Cybersecurity should also be addressed in social media policies. As it has become more common for hackers to infiltrate personal emails and social media accounts, policies can prohibit employees from storing company documents in their personal social media and email accounts for security purposes.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

AI seems to be changing the way we do business daily. However, the policies surrounding company use of AI are lacking at many organizations. Research from McKinsey states only one in five employers have established policies governing their employees use of AI.

AI technology has already streamlined many business practices, but it can also present major risks. Inaccuracy can threaten your business if employees use generative AI for assistance in completing writing tasks, for instance, and the system may not generate accurate or original information.

As we learn the evolving and complex nuances of AI, creating a policy needs careful attention. You may consider developing an AI team to write a comprehensive, well-researched AI policy tailored to your organization. This working group should gather insights from leaders within the organization, including frontline managers, to fully understand how employees use, or might use, AI. This team should be charged with considering the ethical aspects of AI’s use and ensuring the policy aligns with company values.

One of the most critical elements of the policy is an accountability process or system. The policy should clearly outline any corrective action or disciplinary steps associated with using AI in a manner that harms the business and/or its clients. Just as important, the policy should outline how to use and how to avoid misusing AI. Since AI continues to evolve month to month, this is a policy that will require more attention and revisioning throughout the year.

Keeping a critical eye on HR policies is an important part of business success. Setting aside time to review, update and even create new policies now – before being faced with an issue – can potentially mitigate costly challenges down the road.


Karen Leal is performance specialist with Houston-based Insperity, a provider of human resources offering a suite of scalable HR solutions available in the marketplace.

Stay informed and regularly check your security procedures to protect yourself, your business, and your customers. Photo via Getty Images

Houston founders: How safe is your company's data?

guest column

As news comes out every week about new technologies, from new crypto wallets to generative AI to self-driving taxis, it can get overwhelming for most of us to keep up or to understand the new intricacies of technology, and it can get easy to say, “The IT department has it covered.” Well, do they have it covered?

Far too often, companies fail to protect its data with the same muster as its financial security until it is too late. Just as a healthy business will regularly conduct audits of its accounting processes to detect potential fraud, ensure regulatory compliance, and locate areas of improvement for the organization, the same should be done for a business’s data security practices. Key components of any organization are its people and its information, and the IT department is in charge of protecting that information.

We as business people need to ensure that the company’s technology personnel are indeed securing one of the company’s most valuable assets: information.

Big picture: Your business needs to follow an audit process

  1. Confirm the scope of your data
  2. Conduct an internal review of all security practices
  3. Conduct a review of all vendor practices that have access to your data
  4. Confirm compliance with regulations and contractual obligations
  5. Prepare a report with detailed findings and recommendations to improve on year-over-year

Data: What do you have and what duties does it require?

Personal information, particularly when it belongs to customers, is the most frequently compromised type of data. Under laws like the newly passed Texas Data Privacy and Security Act (TDPSA), businesses can have additional obligations to keep this information protected. Personal information can include any information “that is linked or reasonably linkable to an identified or identifiable individual.”

Sensitive data also requires extra precaution, which means protecting (1) personal data that reveals racial or ethnic origin, religious beliefs, mental or physical health diagnosis, sexuality, or citizenship or immigration status; (2) genetic or biometric data that is processed for the purpose of uniquely identifying an individual; (3) personal data collected from a known child; or (4) precise geolocation data.

Other types of data to watch out for include the business’s intellectual property, anonymized customer data, employee personal information, and any other type of proprietary business data. Depending on the industry, the cost of a breach of any of these types of data could be incredibly high, particularly for healthcare and finance.

Ultimately, Texas businesses are required to maintain reasonable procedures to protect personal information, and there may be other laws implicated such as HIPAA, GLBA, CCPA/CPRA, BIPA, GDPR, PIPEDA, and many more, depending on where business is done, the industry implicated, and, in some cases, where customers are located.

"But I think the vendor is responsible."

Check your contracts, and check if the law requires you to have a duty to protect the compromised information, as many do. Involve your IT department in the review of technical compliance whenever you are sharing data with a third party. Further, it is important to make sure that however the Data Processing Addendum says the vendor is processing data is how they are actually processing data. To that point, if you are processing someone else’s data, your business also needs to be doing what it says it is doing, in contracts with third parties and in your Privacy Policy.

Software as a service arrangements, end user license agreements, and other internet and software-based services may require you to hand over data and not give you the opportunity to customize and shift risk. This is why it is important to thoroughly evaluate what technical protections are in place because the risk and duty may still fall on your business regarding the data of your customers and employees. Ask yourself (or your IT professionals) if the vendor actually needs the data they receive to provide services to you.

Key takeaway: Stay informed

Your business needs checks and balances in place with the IT department to ensure you know what they are (or are not) doing and what they are supposed to do. You need policies and procedures, and they need to regularly be tested.

Do you know where your data is stored, both internally and with third parties? Who controls it? How is it being processed, and is anything being shared? Are encryption procedures in place? Firewalls, Intrusion Protection Systems, and End-Point Detection and Response? Do you and your vendors have Incident Response Plans? Stay informed and regularly check your security procedures to protect yourself, your business, and your customers.


Courtney Gahm-Oldham is partner at Frost Brown Todd. Lauren Cole is associate at Frost Brown Todd.

This tiny “smart car” is a lot more powerful than you might think. Photo by Jon Burke/UH

University of Houston gets $2M to launch innovative transportation-focused cybersecurity center

traffic safety

The University of Houston is now leading a national consortium focused on cybersecurity in the transportation sector.

Known as the Transportation Cybersecurity Center for Advanced Research and Education, or CYBER-CARE, it's backed by a $2 million grant from U.S. Department of Transportation for its first year, with anticipated total federal funding of $10 million over five years, as part of the department's University Transportation Centers program that aims to address a number of topics in the field.

UH's center aims to "establish a fundamental knowledge base and explore advanced theories of how to best mitigate impacts of potential large-scale cyberattacks on transportation infrastructure," according to a release from the university. This includes protecting vehicle control systems, developing industry-wide best practices, responding to potential cyber incidents and introducing ways to recover quickly from cyber incidents in traffic networks.

CYBER-CARE is led by Yunpeng “Jack” Zhang, associate professor in the Department of Information Science Technology at the UH and director of the center.

"Our goal to make our intelligent transportation system (ITS) safer for all road users. That aligns well with the USDOT’s strategic goal of improving safety,” Zhang explained in a statement. “We also will promote interdisciplinary research and education across the transportation and cybersecurity domains.”

The center opened earlier this year within UH's Cullen College of Engineering’s Division of Technology. Houston and Texas colleges Rice University and Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi have joined the consortium with UH, along with Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, University of Cincinnati and University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.

The DOT's University Transportation Centers first launched in 1988 to conduct research. Support has ebbed and flowed over the years, but has seen some uptick recently. The Biden Administration's 2021 Bipartisan Infrastructure Law authorized 35 UTCs to receive a total of $90 million in funding from 2022 to 2026 to address issues like traffic congestion, safety, infrastructure durability and cybersecurity risks.

According to the DOT's website there are other Texas UTCs at University of Texas at Austin, University of Texas Arlington, Texas A&M University College Station, Prairie View A&M University and Texas State University.

Last year, Texas A&M also launched a new institute for research and education regarding cybersecurity. The Global Cyber Research Institute was funded by $10 million in gifts from former Texas A&M student Ray Rothrock, a venture capitalist and cybersecurity expert, and other donors.

Tap into these tips to make your company safer from cyber attacks. Photo via Getty Images

Houston expert: 5 tips for improving your company's cybersecurity

guest column

Imagine waking up tomorrow to find out that all of your critical information (trade secrets, financial data, customer lists, etc.) is gone. While working to find out what happened, you order lunch online, only to find out your bank account has no balance.

That scenario happens every day to business leaders just like you. Here are 5 tips everyone should know, which will help reduce cyber security risks.

Tip 1: Know what you need to protect

If you don’t know where your data is kept, how can you protect it?

From hardware like laptops and cell phones, to critical software including accounting and HR, spreadsheets used to calculate financial reports, OneDrive accounts, Google Drive, and “C” drives, there are numerous places your critical data could be kept. Work with your managers to identify every piece of hardware, software, and where the critical data is kept.

Tip 2: Turn on multi-factor authentication for everything you possibly can.

Whenever possible, someone should need a username, password, and a code from an authentication app, text code, e-mailed code, something that’s a unique identifier that randomly changes in order to access critical company information. Alternatively, you can rely on biometrics (fingerprints, facial recognition, etc.) as your third line of protection.

Tip 3: Know who has access to the data and implement basic user access rules.

Everyone should have their own username and unique password. Generic admin accounts, shared user accounts, etc. should never be allowed. If you’re only paying for five licenses but have 10 people accessing the software, stop being cheap and pay for more licenses.

Log in to your bank’s website (or go to a local branch) and run a report which lists who has access to the online banking system and what they can do within it. While you’re at it, get a report of everyone with signature rights for checks and make sure it’s properly updated.

Run a report of all users for each software you listed above which includes what level of access they have. Does their access match their job requirements? Remove all access that isn’t required for their job. You can add access back later if they need it. This can also help you identify employees who might have too many responsibilities.

Now go through the rest of the software, network folders, and the other items you listed above and do the same exercise. Going forward, whoever “owns” the data in each system (banking, accounting, HR, etc.) should approve all access to that data.

Tip 4: Back up that data — often

You most likely have a folder on your computer that has important information in it like Financial spreadsheets, HR files, customer data, and marketing plans. If you selected that folder and hit the delete key, then you opened the recycle bin on your desktop and the folder wasn’t there, how bad would your day be?

Now that you know the location of files, folders, software, and other important data points, turn on an auto-backup process and test that process about once a quarter. If you use something like Google Drive, Microsoft’s OneDrive, or similar cloud services, most will provide free backup support. However, before you do that, require all employees to move important files off of their “C” drive and into network folders.

Tip 5: Implement antivirus software

I’ll be the first to say that I hate antivirus software. Why? Because it typically slows down your computer while it runs in the background and flags items like the spreadsheet you use every month as a “potential threat”.

Even so, the aggravation is worth it in the long run.

There are tons of antivirus software options. If you think about protecting your home, you don’t need armed guards, attack dogs, and a feral cat. You do need someone to glance out the window to see who is at the door. If it’s a group of zombies trying to eat you, then you need to have the ability and resources to protect your home. Pick an antivirus software that matches your budget and get it in place. Don’t overthink it, just get it going.

One last bonus tip I’ll leave you with — have random test “phishing” emails sent out to everyone (including yourself) in your company. The number one cause of cyber security issues in businesses is internal users clicking on fake emails.


Thomas Mullinnix is the founder of Houston-based Re-Vision Management Consulting LLC.

A Houston founder explains why you should shift the way you think about cybersecurity from a cost to an investment in your business. Photo via Getty Images

Houston expert: Top three ways to make cybersecurity a business decision

guest column

For companies big or small, scaling your revenue securely is about building people, processes, and technology to help you deliver your value to market in the most efficient way possible. But shifting cybersecurity as a cost to an investment takes a shift in thinking.

Here are three tips to make cyber a business decision for your company.

Don’t fail at digital transformation. Whether you’re considering a digital “initiative” to stay ahead of competitors, reduce operational expenditure when possible, or simply drive efficiency to customer value delivery, transforming how you’re doing business should rest upon a foundation of security across your existing people, process, or technology. An effective cybersecurity program should drive confidence to your team to expand your tooling, processes, or delivery mechanisms with confidence. The alternate reality is you shift a working process to incorporate new technology, and something fails or breaks, causing frustration of your team and fewer dollars in the door. Here are a few tips that will help you make sound business investments in technology:

  1. New technology or system can introduce new cyber risks to your company. As a result, it is good practice to balance the value gained with the risks absorbed. Establishing a “new product” risk vs reward process will reduce ad hoc purchases and introduce more sound thinking to your team’s decisions.
  2. New technology purchases will come with vendor onboarding but beware of the challenges you face when those implementation or training hours run out. Ask for additional support hours as part of your purchase so that you’re always able to call a help desk for real support.

Secure design reduces long-term costs. Regardless of your business type, if some type of cyber-attack could affect your business outcome(s) — be it your product, the loss of sensitive customer data, theft of intellectual property, or disruption to service delivery — consider investments in your cyber program an investment towards the cost of future business operations.

For instance, manufacturers across virtually every sector continually balance “secure design” with efficiency/cost as they compete in the market. Their challenge: estimating future recalls and product “updates” to be paid for by future operational expenditure. The same can be applied to unforeseen downtime of a critical inventory, payment capture, or website system. In both cases, here are two tips to shift cyber from a “security cost” to a “business” mindset:

  1. Work with your security vendors to develop a long-term strategy rather than quoting an “install and leave” project. Security vendors are businesses too. They will respond positively if you tell them you will offer longevity in return for payment over time. 
  2. Amortize your costs this year into next year's costs of goods. If you can negotiate monthly or quarterly payments with your security vendors, adding 30-60 days of net pay dates, you’re already starting to shift security improvements realized tomorrow to costs you pay next quarter.

Your customers want you to have a great cyber program. Especially in regulated spaces like healthcare, defense, and other critical infrastructure sectors, there is a high chance your company’s cyber program must meet minimal cyber guidelines. Investing in the training, processes, and technology required to achieve some element of “compliance” is a must-have investment for doing business with big companies.

A mistake small companies make is allocating the minimal resources “reach the bar” without thinking about the risks. Employee turnover, scaling your business in new regions, and increasing purchase order sizes all carry a potential “new bar” you must reach on your cyber maturity. Building a cyber program initiative may help you increase sales. Imagine you say this in your next prospect meeting as you aim to win that big contract, “Additionally, we reviewed your cybersecurity supplier requirements online and are pleased to say we have certified documentation showcasing an evolving, continually improving cyber program that exceeds your requirements. We feel that adds to our differentiation.”


Ted Gutierrez is the CEO and co-founder of SecurityGate, a SaaS platform for OT cyber improvement.

Not everyone is as holly jolly amid the holidays. Image via Getty Images

Houston expert shares tips for navigating cybersecurity challenges amid the holiday season

guest column

It’s a grinch's cyber-playground, and this holiday season, you’re at risk — even if you think it won’t happen to you.

The good news is you can protect yourself from scams and fraud. Just remember that cybercriminals don’t discriminate, they can prey on anyone.

These statistics may surprise you:

  • Anxiety about having a mobile device hacked differs by demographic; low-income Black women rank mobile security as their number one concern, while the general population ranks mobile security as their third largest concern, according to a recent Recon Analytics survey of more than 3,297 U.S. consumers.
  • 44 percent of millennials have been victims of online crime in the last year and 31 percent admit they share their passwords with others.
  • Romance scams resulted in the most financial losses for adults aged 60 and over
  • Younger consumers took fewest actions after being notified of a data breach affecting their identity/online accounts in Q1 2022
  • Nearly 50 percent of American gamers have experienced a cyberattack on their gaming account or device
  • 47 percent of women who live in cities say their identities and/or data has been compromised in the past 6 months due to lack of home internet protections, compared with 53 percent of city men who say the same thing, according to a recent Recon Analytics survey.

People everywhere, regardless of gender, race, income level, education, or age, deserve to feel safe online. And yet, many aren’t aware how to protect themselves, don’t make it a priority, or wait to act until they are alerted to suspicious activity.

With words like malware, phishing, spoofing, and encryption, learning to protect yourself can feel like a college-level course. But it doesn’t have to be that complicated.

Top 5 ways to guard against cyberthreats

By following five simple steps, you can start to protect your network, devices and data from many digital threats.

  1. Understand cyberattacks are real. One of the first hacks was documented in 1963 and today, nearly 60 years later, hackers are attacking phones and computers every 39 seconds. Cyberattacks continue to grow in number every year.
  2. Be proactive. Don’t wait for an attack to happen. Monitor your accounts daily so you are the first to know if suspicious activity is occurring. Check with your wireless carrier to see if they have tools to help. AT&T customers can download the free ActiveArmor mobile security app to help block spam calls and secure their personal data. And ask your internet provider about extra layers of security available to you at home. AT&T Fiber customers can access AT&T ActiveArmor internet security features at no additional cost to them.
  3. Step up your mobile security. Mobile devices now account for more than 60 percent of digital fraud. Mobile banking, online shopping, streaming videos and storing documents make our phones a central location for sensitive information. Your wireless carrier may be able to help. AT&T offers advanced security like Public Wi-Fi Protection, Identity Monitoring and Safe Browsing for no extra charge with some of our plans. Check with your carrier to make sure they’re doing what they can to keep you safe.
  4. Protect your passwords. We all know it’s necessary, but not all of us take steps to do it. 68 percent of people admit to using the same password across multiple logins. Using a strong password that differs from site-to-site will help decrease your chances of being hacked. If you struggle with passwords, consider getting a password manager.
  5. Report suspicious text messages. As mobile operators have more success blocking illegal robocalls, scammers have turned to text messages. But now it’s easier than ever to report spam texts to help block and control them. The latest iOS and Android operating systems have a simple reporting feature in their Apple and Google messaging apps.
Dedicate some time to safeguard your information this holiday season. For more cybersecurity resources (regardless of your carrier), visit If you or someone you know is new to computers or mobile devices, click here for more information on our free digital literacy courses.


Luis Silva is vice president and general manager at AT&T.

Ad Placement 300x100
Ad Placement 300x600

CultureMap Emails are Awesome

Houston clean tech startup pitch competition names winners at annual CERAWeek event

pitch perfect

For the third year, the Greater Houston Partnership's Houston Energy Transition Institute hosted its startup pitch competition at CERAWeek by S&P Global. A dozen startups walked away with recognition — and three some with cash prizes.

HETI joined partners Rice Alliance for Technology and Entrepreneurship and TEX-E for the 2024 Energy Venture Day and Pitch Competition at CERAWeek on Wednesday, March 20. Forty-two companies, which have collectively raised over $265 million in investment funding already, pitched to judges. Nine startups won awards across three tracks.

TEX-E, a Texas nonprofit that supports student-founded upstarts, had five of its companies pitch and three winners walked away with monetary prizes. Teams that competed in the TEX-E Prize track, many of which come from Houston universities, include:

  • AirMax, University of Texas at Austin
  • BeadBlocker, University of Houston
  • Carvis Energy Solutions, Texas A&M University
  • Coflux Purification, Rice University
  • Solidec, Rice University

Solidec, which is working on a platform to produce chemicals from captured carbon, won first place and $25,000. The company also recently scored a $100,000 grant from Rice's One Small Step Grant program, as well as a voucher from the DOE. Coflux Purification, which has a technology that destroys PFAS in filtration, won second place and$15,000. The company also secured a One Small Step Grant to the tune of $80,000. AirMax, which focuses on optimizing sustainability for air conditioning equipment, won third place and $10,000.

Last year, Houston-based Helix Earth Technologies took home the top TEX-E price and $25,000 cash awards. The venture, founded by Rawand Rasheed and Brad Husick from Rice University, developed high-speed, high-efficiency filter systems derived from technology originating at NASA.

The rest of the companies that pitched competed for non-monetary awards. Here's what companies won:

  • Group A (CCUS, oilfield solutions, analytics and minerals):
    • First place: Ardent
    • Second place: Vaulted Deep
    • Third place: Mitico
  • Group B (batteries, renewables, water, and grid technology):
    • First place: SungreenH2
    • Second place: FeX Energy
    • Third place: Mercurius Biorefining
  • Group C (Mobility, Materials, and hydrogen solutions)
    • First place: Thiozen
    • Second place: Power2Hydrogen
    • Third place: Arolytics
HETI, Rice Alliance, and TEX-E celebrated the winners at a private reception on Wednesday evening.

Houston organization announces major partnership with DOE lab to spur energy innovation commercialization

R&D teammate

A new partnership between the Greater Houston Partnership and Argonne National Laboratory has been established to spur development of commercial-scale energy transition solutions.

The GHP and the Houston Energy Transition Initiative, or HETI, announced that it has signed a memorandum of understanding with Argonne National Laboratory, a federally-funded research and development facility in Illinois. The lab is owned by the United States Department of Energy and run by UChicago Argonne LLC of the University of Chicago.

“The U.S. Department of Energy’s national laboratories have long been the backbone of research, development, and demonstration for the energy sector," Bobby Tudor, CEO of Artemis Energy Partners and Chair of HETI, says in a news release. "The Partnership and HETI, working with our industry members, business community and top research and academic institutions, in collaboration with Argonne, will work across our energy innovation ecosystem to drive this critical effort for our region.”

The partnership, announced at HETI House at CERAWeek by S&P Global, is intended to provide resources and collaboration opportunities between Houston's energy innovation ecosystem — from corporates to startups — to "accelerate the translation, evaluation and pre-commercialization of breakthrough carbon reduction technologies," per the news release.

“A decarbonization center of excellence in Houston is the missing link in the region’s coordinated approach to advancing critical energy transition technologies needed to mitigate the risks associated with climate change, while also promoting economic growth and job creation for the region,” Tudor continues.

Established in 1946, Argonne works with universities, industry, and other national laboratories on large, collaborative projects that are expected to make a big impact on the energy transition.

“Partnerships are essential to realizing net zero goals,” Argonne Director Paul Kearns adds. “We are pleased to extend DOE national laboratory expertise and work with HETI to focus the region’s considerable energy and industrial assets, infrastructure, and talent on broad commercial deployment of needed technologies.”


This article originally ran on EnergyCapital.

Texas again improves on annual ranking of most innovative states

making progress

It's another year of slow but steady progress for the Lone Star State on an annual report on the top states for innovation.

Texas ranked No. 14 with a score of 48.43 points on personal finance site WalletHub's Most and Least Innovative States in 2024 ranking. Last year, Texas ranked No. 15. The state has steadily inched up the list — Texas was No.16 on the list in 2022 and No. 17 in 2021.

According to the report, Texas had the following ranking across the following categories:

  • No. 19 – Share of STEM Professionals
  • No. 16 – Projected STEM-Job Demand by 2030
  • No. 25 – Eighth-Grade Math & Science Performance
  • No. 19 – Share of Science & Engineering Graduates Aged 25+
  • No. 13 – Share of Technology Companies
  • No. 31 – R&D Spending per Capita
  • No. 15 – Venture-Capital Funding per Capita
Source: WalletHub

The report analyzed the 50 states and the District of Columbia and how each performed across 25 key metrics and across two key dimensions, “Human Capital” and “Innovation Environment," per the report. The data was pulled from the U.S. Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Science Foundation, National Center for Education Statistics, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and other records.

“The most innovative states are especially attractive to people who have majored in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, as they offer abundant career opportunities and investment dollars, both for jobs at existing companies and for startups," says Cassandra Happe, a WalletHub analyst in the report. "These states also instill young students with the skills they need to succeed in the current workforce, skills which are useful whether or not they pursue a STEM career.”

The report's top 10 included:

  1. District of Columbia with a score of 71.65
  2. Massachusetts with a score of 69.93
  3. Washington with a score of 66.36
  4. California with a score of 65.63
  5. Colorado with a score of 63.93
  6. Maryland with a score of 62.41
  7. Virginia with a score of 59.86
  8. Delaware with a score of 54.58
  9. Utah with a score of 53.66
  10. New Jersey with a score of 53.2