Myth busting

Fact or fiction? Houston blockchain expert addresses common misconceptions

Here are some of the most common, misunderstood aspects about blockchain technology. Getty Images

Blockchain has become one of the most talked about emerging technologies, often mentioned in the same breath as artificial intelligence, virtual reality, Internet of Things, and big data technologies. But as a relatively new technology, it's totally expected that people will not fully comprehend aspects of the technology.

Here are some of the most common, misunderstood aspects about blockchain technology.

1. Blockchain is the same as Bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies)

Source of misconception: The first and probably the most common misconception about blockchain is that it is the same as Bitcoin or cryptocurrency in general — and it is not hard to spot where this comes from. Blockchain as a technology became popular almost a decade after the release of the Bitcoin whitepaper. It is very common for people to refer to it as the technology that powers Bitcoin, and while this is totally correct, people forget one important fact — blockchain does a lot more than just enabling Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.

The truth about blockchain: A blockchain is basically a decentralized ledger of transactions. It follows therefore that a Bitcoin blockchain will record Bitcoin transactions. However, blockchain can record virtually anything of value, not just cryptocurrency transactions, provided that the data can be represented on the chain. For instance, J.P. Morgan announced last year that it was tokenizing Gold bars via its enterprise blockchain known as Quorum. Blockchain has found applications in healthcare, supply chain, oil and gas, in addition to finance.

2. Cryptocurrencies (and by association blockchain) are used for illegal activities

Source of misconception: Cryptocurrency has a reputation (earned or otherwise) of being closely associated with crimes like ransomware attacks, money laundering, drug trafficking, and dark web activities. This is because cryptocurrency transactions are relatively harder to track, and criminals have used cryptocurrency in the past to perpetuate these activities. This has been blown out of proportion by law enforcement agencies and notable figures like Bill Gates and Jamie Dimon.

The truth about blockchain: Truth is, regular fiat currencies (the US dollar and Euro specifically), and not Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies, remain the main medium of sponsoring criminal activities. A Europol report last year confirmed that Bitcoin and other crypto were not used to sponsor terrorism in the region, contrary to widely held opinions. Furthermore, the ratio of illegal to legal activity in Bitcoin has dropped since it became more popular and widely used. Special agent Lilita Infante at the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration estimates a drop from 90 percent to 10 percent in the last five years. Actually, banks and other legitimate institutions are adopting blockchain technology for cross-border payment settlements.

3. Blockchain transactions are anonymous

Source of misconception: Again, this comes from a widely held belief that blockchain (actually cryptocurrency) is unregulated. It has been positioned as the antithesis of data-collating centralized systems, and therefore has to be anonymous.

The truth about blockchain: On the contrary, blockchain — especially public blockchains — are open and transparent ledgers that show transactions between different addresses. It's fairly easy to track transactions on a public blockchain using block explorers like Etherscan. Also, KYC requirements at many crypto exchanges make it possible to associate these address with real people. That said, there are privacy-focused blockchains like Z-Cash and Monero which use special cryptographic techniques to shield certain details of transactions.

4. Blockchain will solve all the world’s problems

Source of misconception: Hype. As blockchain technology gained in popularity, so came individuals seeking to apply it to every sector of human endeavor. Likening it to the internet, they created an impression that blockchain can and will address pain points in businesses across all industries. As impressive as it is, blockchain, like every technology before it, has its applications and its limitations.

The truth about blockchain: The extent of blockchain's impact has not yet been fully exploited but it will be preposterous to say that blockchain will solve all the world's woes. Through decentralization, blockchain provides trust, and security thereby removing the need for third parties; this is where its realistic use cases arise. At the moment, issues like scalability need to be addressed for blockchain to become commercially viable.

5. Blockchain applications will work all by themselves, independent of existing technology

Source of misconception: Hype again. On the backs of No. 4, blockchain is sometimes looked at as a standalone, independent technology. Given the hype surrounding blockchain, folks could be forgiven for thinking that the technology will work all by itself, without having to deal with legacy applications and technologies.

The truth about blockchain: Blockchain applications most often must work side by side with other existing technologies and systems, as well as in some cases, with emerging technologies like IoT, AI and others. In the financial sector, for instance, blockchain is incorporated into existing payment systems to facilitate cross-border payment settlements.

6. Blockchain only has application in finance

Source of misconception: This stems from the misconception that blockchain is all about Bitcoin or a new order of currency that will replace fiat.

The truth about blockchain: The fintech sector, more than any other, has adopted blockchain technology since its early days. That said, blockchain applications are spreading across various industries. In addition to the ones mentioned previously, projects like MedRec, PowerLedger, and Vakt are adopting blockchain in healthcare, energy, and the oil and gas industries, respectively.

7. Blockchain is the same as Cloud

Source of misconception: Both are internet-based technologies and involves access to data from different devices, but that's as similar as they get. Cloud service providers like Amazon are introducing enterprise blockchain solutions to cloud-based services.

The truth about blockchain: As a shared ledger, blockchain data is not stored on a central set of servers as is the case with cloud services. Also unlike cloud storage, blockchain doesn't usually hold actual physical information like pdf files rather it makes a record of its existence.

8. Blockchain is a single technology

Source of misconception: This comes from the likening of blockchain to the internet. As there is one internet, some people erroneously believe that there is a single blockchain.

The truth about blockchain: There are several blockchain networks — both private and public. While Bitcoin blockchain is the biggest blockchain, there are other public blockchains like Ethereum and Litecoin as well as private blockchains based on Hyperledger.

While these misconceptions are still prevalent within and outside the blockchain community, efforts are underway to dispel these myths. Education and an open dialog is key in such cases. Those within the blockchain community need to make a concerted effort to truly listen to what those outside are saying. Solution providers also need to understand the business, its issues and pain points, and propose the correct solution, whether blockchain-based or not. Blockchain technology is still in its infancy. Remember when folks did not know what the internet was or when it was nothing but hype? In 20 years or so, we will have a few such stories to laugh at.

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Mahesh Sashital is the founder and chairman of the Houston Blockchain Alliance.

Over half of Houston business leaders say their company has already enabled AI, blockchain, and extended reality technology. Getty Images

When it comes to enabling new technologies to advance business practices, Houston business leaders are ahead of the curve. According to a new study, the majority of the companies surveyed are already using artificial intelligence, blockchain, and extended reality today.

The global study, Technology Vision 2019, was conducted by Accenture and included surveys from 6,600 business and IT executives around the world, including 100 in Houston. Dallas was the only other Texas market surveyed, along with nine other major United States metros — Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Minneapolis, New York City, San Francisco, Seattle, and Washington D.C.

Of the 100 respondents, 91 said that innovation efforts have accelerated within their organization over the past three years because of new technology, and 80 said that while they feel their employees are digitally savvy, they are "waiting" for the company's technology to catch up. However, when it comes to the need to reskill employees due to emerging tech in the workplace, 47 percent says that need will happen within the next two years.

The survey also focused on three distinct technologies — AI, blockchain, and extended reality, which includes augmented reality, virtual reality, and mixed reality. XR responses indicate that 66 percent of business leaders have already used some sort of version of XR either in one or more of their business units (37 percent) or are piloting the technology (29 percent).

The numbers for adoption for AI is similar, with 65 percent of leaders saying they have introduced AI tech in the workplace already —nearly 2 in 5 have already adopted somewhere within the company, while over 1 in 4 say their company has an AI pilot program.

Blockchain, according to the study, falls further down the spectrum in Houston companies. Only 15 percent of the companies have a pilot program, but 42 percent have blockchain technology already in use in one or more business units — for a total of 57 percent adoption rate.

With 5G on the horizon, almost all respondents — 79 percent — say the technology is going to revolutionize their industry in terms of how they provide products or services to their clients. Almost half said that impact will happen and jobs will be altered within the next three years.

Brian Richards, managing director at Accenture, oversees the company's Houston Innovation Hub. The hub welcomes in business leaders who are utilizing Accenture's services to ideate and then implicate innovative technologies. At a recent panel in the Accenture office, Richards spoke to emerging tech in Houston and said there's been no shortage of leaders wanting to move the needle on new tech.

"I've never seen [corporations] more motivated than they are right now to be able to think differently on how they are able to engage Houston," he said.